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I) Sunlight – energy source for Earth
A) Energy in a sunbeam
1) Cannot be measured directly
2) Need to measure the effect energy has on an object’s temperature
(1) The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1º Celsius
B) Sunlight striking the Earth is affected by several factors
1) Latitude and longitude
(a) Sunlight strikes the Earth at many angles
(a) Earth’s tilt
3) Time of Day
C) Sunlight in the atmosphere
1) Atmosphere absorbs ultraviolet radiation
(a) Heats the thermosphere and upper stratosphere
(b) Ozone layer
2) Gas and clouds in troposphere also absorb some sunlight energy
3) Clouds reflect light energy back to space and down to Earth’s surface
D) Sunlight at Earth’s surface
1) Reflected back to atmosphere
2) Absorbed by the surface
II) The atmosphere’s energy sources
1) Movement of heat energy from molecule to molecule
(a) Transfers heat from the Earth to the atmosphere
1) Movement of heat by warm and cold currents
C) Latent heat
1) Energy stored in molecules through evaporation
1) Release and transfer of energy in wavelengths of heat and light
E) Greenhouse effect
1) Ability of the atmosphere to let energy in and prevent it from escaping back into space
F) Energy budget
1) Sum of all energy gains and losses
Reflection, scattering and absorption of incoming sunlight
Angle affect on area covered by striking sunlight
There are three main sources of energy in the energy cycle: solar radiation, geothermal energy, and tidal energy. Energy is lost from the system though reflection and through degradation and re-radiation.
Diagrammatic representation of the Earth as a system of interacting parts. Each character represents a reservoir, and each arrow a flow of energy or materials.
Earth as a closed system.
Energy reaches the Earth from an external source and eventually returns to space as long wavelength radiation. Smaller systems within the Earth, such as the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere, are open systems.
The Annual Mean Global Energy Budget
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